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“Two-birds-one-stone” colon-targeted nanomedicine treats ulcerative colitis by way of transforming immune microenvironment and anti-fibrosis | Journal of Nanobiotechnology


Supplies

PA was obtained from Manster Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Chengdu, China). SV was obtained from Melone Pharmaceutical (Dalian, China). PLGA (5–15 kDa) was from Daigang Biomaterial Co., Ltd. (Jinan, China). Chitosan (< 25 kDa, diploma of deacetylation 85–90%) was obtained from Yunzhou Biochemistry Co., Ltd. (Qingdao, China). Synthetic colon options have been provided by LABEST Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Beijing, China). Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) have been obtained from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). DiR (1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindotricarbocyaine iodide) was bought from AmyJet Scientific (Wuhan, China). Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), fetal bovine serum (FBS), and RPMI-1640 cell tradition medium have been obtained from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Gibco (Waltham, USA). Macrophage colony-stimulating issue (M-CSF) and murine interleukin-4 (IL-4) have been bought from Peprotech (Rocky Hill, USA). Recombinant mouse/rat TGF-β1 was bought from Novoprotein Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), cocktail protease inhibitor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (common MW 3000–5000) have been obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, USA). BCA protein assay package, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay package, radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) lysis buffer, and phosphatase inhibitor cocktail A have been bought from Beyotime Biotechnology (Shanghai, China). The dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), TRIeasy™ Whole RNA Extraction Reagent, RNA reverse transcription package, and SYBR® Inexperienced Grasp Combine have been bought from Yeasen Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). The first antibody of β-actin was from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, USA). The first antibody of GAPDH was from Proteintech (Rosemont, USA). The first antibodies of phospho-NF-κB p65 (Ser536), phosphor-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185), phospho-Akt (Ser473), Akt, p38 MAPK, Cox2, Claudin-1, and ZO-1 have been bought from Cell Signaling Know-how (Boston, USA). The antibody Anti-ERK1/2, JNK/SAPK, phospho-ERK1 (Thr202/Tyr204)/ERK2 (Thr185/Tyr187), and phospho-p38 MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182) have been bought from Beyotime Biotechnology (Shanghai, China). Anti-iNOS was bought from Absin Organic Know-how Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Anti-Vimentin and anti-MR antibodies have been bought from Abcam (UK). Anti-α-SMA antibody was bought from Arigo Biolaboratories Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Intracellular staining kits have been bought from BD Biosciences (Franklin Lakes, USA). APC-Cy7 anti-Mouse CD45, PE-Cy7 anti-Mouse CD11c, PE anti-Mouse MHCII, BB700 anti-Mouse CD11b, AF700 anti-Mouse Ly6C, BV605 anti-Mouse Ly6G, Percp-cy5.5 anti-Mouse CD3, and FITC anti-Mouse CD4 have been bought from BD Biosciences (Franklin Lakes, USA). FITC anti-Mouse CD11b, BV510 anti-Mouse F4/80, APC anti-Mouse CD206, FITC anti-Mouse CD45, BV421 anti-Mouse CD25, and PE anti-Mouse FoxP3 have been bought from Biolegend (USA).

Cell traces

Human colonic carcinoma cells (Caco-2, epithelial properties), murine fibroblasts (L929), and murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) have been supplied by the Shanghai Cell Financial institution of the Chinese language Academy of Sciences (Shanghai, China). The cells have been cultured in DMEM (RAW 264.7, L929) and RPMI-1640 (Caco-2) media supplemented with 10% FBS and streptomycin-penicillin (100 U/mL) at 37 °C in a humidified incubator containing 5% CO2.

Animals

Feminine or male Balb/c mice (5–7 weeks previous) have been bought from the Shanghai Laboratory Animal Heart (SLAC) Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China), and housed at a particular pathogen-free care facility below a 12 h gentle–darkish cycle. All of the animal experimental procedures have been complied with the institutional moral pointers and permitted by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese language Academy of Sciences (IACUC No. SYXK2015-0027).

Mouse peritoneal macrophages isolation and polarization

Mouse peritoneal macrophages have been extracted from the belly cavity of the male Balb/c mice injected with 2.5 mL of three% thioglycollate medium [21]. The mice have been sacrificed 4 days post-injection, and the belly cavity was flushed with chilly PBS (10 mL). The flush-out suspension was centrifuged at 2500 rpm for five min to gather peritoneal macrophages. The cells have been cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% (v/v) FBS and streptomycin-penicillin (100 U/mL) for 1 day. The adherent macrophages have been then uncovered to LPS (1 µg/mL) to induce the M1 phenotype (M1Φ) or to IL-4 (40 ng/mL) to induce the M2 phenotype (M2Φ).

Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) tradition and polarization

BMDMs have been generated by culturing the bone marrow cells from the femurs and tibias of the male Balb/c mice utilizing a beforehand reported protocol [22]. The cells have been cultured in DMEM provided with 20% FBS, streptomycin-penicillin (100 U/mL), and 20 ng/mL M-CSF for 4 days. The adherent macrophages have been then uncovered to LPS (1 µg/mL) to induce M1Φ or to IL-4 (40 ng/mL) to induce M2Φ.

In vitro anti-fibrosis research of SV

The L929 fibroblasts have been activated by reworking development factor-β (TGF-β) (15 ng/mL). Analysis of the anti-fibrosis impact of SV was carried out within the TGF-β1-induced L929 cells. The L929 cells have been co-treated with SV (1, 2, and 5 μM) and TGF-β1 (15 ng/mL) for 48 h. The cells have been subjected to Western blot evaluation.

In vitro anti-inflammatory research of PA and SV and synergistic impact

The peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages have been pre-treated with PA (2, 5, and 10 μM) or SV (2 μM) for two h, respectively, they usually have been then uncovered to LPS for twenty-four h to induce inflammatory macrophages. As well as, the non-treatment and M2Φ have been used as management. The cells have been subjected to Western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain response (qPCR) evaluation.

To additional examine the synergistic impact of PA and SV, the peritoneal macrophages have been pre-treated with SV (1 μM) and PA (0, 5, 10, and 20 μM) or PA (10 μM) and SV (0, 1, and a pair of μM) for two h, respectively, they usually have been then uncovered to LPS for twenty-four h to induce inflammatory peritoneal macrophages (IPM). The cells have been subjected to qPCR evaluation.

Western blot evaluation

The cells or tissues have been lysed on ice utilizing a RIPA lysate package with protease and phosphatase inhibitors, and the whole protein was measured by utilizing a BCA protein assay package. The protein samples have been separated by SDS-PAGE after which transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (Millipore Merck, USA). The bands have been blocked with a protein-free quick blocking resolution for 10 min and incubated within the main antibody resolution ready with 5% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a single day at 4 °C. After thorough washing with Tris-buffered saline containing 0.1% Tween-20 (TBST), the membrane was incubated with the HRP-labeled secondary antibody resolution for 1 h. The membrane was washed and the proteins on the membrane have been visualized utilizing the essential luminol chemiluminescent package (Sharebio, China) and the ChemiDoc MPTM Imaging System (Bio-Rad, USA).

qPCR evaluation

Whole RNA within the cells and tissues was extracted with TRIeasy™ Whole RNA Extraction Reagent, and the reverse transcription was carried out with the cDNA synthesis Package (Yeasen Biotech, China). Lastly, the combination of primers, cDNA, and SYBR was subjected to the CFX384 Contact Detecting System (Bio-Purple, USA) for qPCR. All primer sequences are listed in Further file 1: Desk S1.

Preparation of chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles

The PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) and chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles (CS-PLGA NPs) have been ready by a single emulsification-solvent evaporation technique in response to a earlier report [23]. Briefly, 50 mg of PLGA, 5 mg of PA, and 1 mg of SV (PA/SV molar ratio round 10:1) have been co-dissolved in 0.4 mL dichloromethane, and the natural solvent was added to five mL of PVA (1%, w/v) or PVA (1%, w/v)/chitosan (0.1%, w/v) resolution utilizing an ultrasound probe (Scientz, Ningbo, China) for five min below 200 W of amplitude and ice tub circumstances. The obtained emulsion was added dropwise to 50 mL of PVA (0.1%) or PVA (0.1%, w/v)/chitosan (0.01%, w/v) resolution below magnetic stirring situation, after which the natural solvent within the emulsion was evaporated by a rotary evaporator. The above NPs have been centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 10 min to take away the unencapsulated medication. The supernatant was collected after which centrifuged at 4 °C at 12,000 rpm. The PLGA NPs and CS-PLGA NPs have been collected by washing with deionized water thrice and resuspended.

Characterization of the CS-PLGA NPs

The particle measurement, polydispersity index (PDI), and potential of PLGA NPs and CS-PLGA NPs have been measured by a Malvern Zeta analyzer (Nano-ZS90, Malvern, UK). The morphology of the NPs was characterised by a transmission electron microscope (TEM, 120 kV, Talos L120C, FEI, USA).

The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectra of the bodily combination of PA and SV, pure SV, and CS-PLGA NPs have been scanned on a polycrystalline XRD (D8 ADVANCE, Bruker, Germany) at an angle within the vary of 10° to 80° (2θ).

The drug-loading capability (DL) and encapsulation effectivity (EE) of PA and SV within the NPs have been decided by a gasoline chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC–FID, 6890N, Agilent Applied sciences, USA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, 1260 Infinity, Agilent Applied sciences, USA), respectively. The calculation method was as follows:

$${textual content{DL}}left( % proper) = {textual content{Weight}};{textual content{of}};{textual content{encapsulated}};{textual content{drug}}/{textual content{Whole}};{textual content{weight}};{textual content{of}};{textual content{nanoparticles}} occasions 100%$$

$${textual content{EE}}left( % proper) = {textual content{Weight}};{textual content{of}};{textual content{encapsulated}};{textual content{drug}}/{textual content{Whole}};{textual content{weight}};{textual content{of}};{textual content{added}};{textual content{drug}} occasions 100%$$

The chromatographic technique for detecting the focus of PA by GC–FID is as follows. A DB-5 column (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm) with a stationary section of 5% phenyl–95% methyl polysiloxane was used. The temperature of the injector and detector was set to 290 °C. The heating program was stored on the beginning temperature of 180 °C for 10 min. It was then raised to 290 °C (30 °C/min) and maintained at this temperature for two min. The cut up ratio was set to twenty:1 and the injection quantity was 2 μL.

The chromatographic technique for detecting the focus of SV by HPLC is as follows. The C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm, Agilent, USA) was eluted with a cellular section composed of aqueous resolution (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid, v/v) and acetonitrile (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid, v/v) (75:25, v/v) at a stream charge of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 238 nm.

Drug stability and in vitro drug launch

SV will not be secure in weakly alkaline and the SV drug stability within the NPs was measured by detecting in a simulated colonic fluid (PBS, pH 7.8). The samples have been positioned on a shaker at 37 °C and picked up at pre-set time factors for SV willpower by HPLC.

The dialysis technique was used to investigate the in vitro launch of the PLGA NPs and CS-PLGA NPs. To simulate the in vivo drug launch traits of the NPs, a three-stage technique involving three launch media with completely different pH values in response to the Chinese language Pharmacopoeia was employed. Dialysis tubes (MWCO 8–14 kDa) containing SV, PLGA NPs, or CS-PLGA NPs, respectively, have been positioned within the launch media in an order of simulated gastric fluid (HCl, pH 1.2), simulated intestinal fluid (PBS, pH 6.8), and simulated colonic fluid (PBS, pH 7.4) containing 0.5% Tween-80. This experiment was carried out on a shaker. On the scheduled time factors, the medium samples have been collected and the identical quantity of contemporary medium was replenished. The cumulative launch of SV was decided by HPLC.

Mobile uptake effectivity

The Caco-2 cells, L929 cells, and M1Φ have been incubated with the coumarin 6-labeled PLGA NPs or CS-PLGA NPs for 1 h, respectively. The cells have been harvested and stuck with 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 min and stained with DAPI for fluorescence imaging (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany). The harvested cells have been additionally analyzed by stream cytometry (ACEA NovoCyte 3000, Agilent, USA) for intracellular uptake effectivity.

Cell viability assay

The impact of the NPs on the viability of macrophages, M2Φ, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells was decided by a typical MTT assay. The cells have been handled with PA (0–80 μM), SV (0–20 μM), free mixture medication, PLGA NPs, and CS-PLGA NPs (molar ratio round 10:1) for twenty-four h, respectively. The microplate reader (Multiskan, Thermo Fisher, USA) was used to measure the optical density worth of the pattern at 490 nm.

Measurement of intracellular ROS

The BMDM cells have been pretreated with free drug mixture, PLGA NPs, or CS-PLGA NPs (molar ratio round 10:1) for two h after which incubated with LPS (1 μg/mL) for six h, respectively. The cells have been collected for figuring out ROS by utilizing a ROS willpower package and stream cytometry.

Measurement of intracellular inflammatory cytokines

The RAW 264.7 cells have been pretreated with free drug mixture (PA 10 μM + SV 1 μM), PLGA NPs, or CS-PLGA NPs (equal dose to the mixture) for two h after which incubated with LPS (1 μg/mL) for twenty-four h. These cells have been subjected to qPCR assay to detect the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines.

In vivo distribution of nanoparticles

To confirm the concentrating on means of CS-PLGA NPs to inflammatory websites, IVIS was employed. Briefly, the colitis mice have been fasted in a single day earlier than the start of the experiment, after which orally administered with DiR-labeled PLGA NPs or CS-PLGA NPs. The mice have been sacrificed and the organs (coronary heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, gut, and colon) have been dissected for ex vivo imaging on the predetermined time factors (3 and 5 h), after which the organs have been uncovered to the IVIS imaging system (Caliper PerkinElmer, Hopkinton, USA) to investigate the biodistribution of the NPs.

In vivo remedy of acute colitis

The therapeutic impact of CS-PLGA NPs was evaluated utilizing an acute colitis mannequin, which was induced within the Balb/c mice by supplementing with 3% (w/v) DSS-containing water for 13 days. The colitis mice have been randomly allotted into 4 remedy teams (DSS, PA/SV, PLGA NPs, and CS-PLGA NPs), whereas a wholesome group was arrange as a management. The free medication dispersed in 0.5% CMC-Na (w/v) aqueous resolution or the NPs have been orally administered in response to a routine in Fig. 4A at a dose of 16 mg/kg of PA and three.2 mg/kg of SV (i.e., 10:1 mol/mol) (n = 6 per group). In the course of the experiment, the physique weight, feces, and illness exercise index (DAI) of the mice have been recorded each day. The DAI rating was calculated as proven in Further file 1: Desk S2. On the finish of the experiment, the mice have been sacrificed, the colon was separated and measured for size, and the principle organs have been collected and weighed to calculate the organ coefficient in response to the next method:

$${textual content{Organ}};{textual content{coefficient}}left( % proper) = {textual content{Weight}};{textual content{of}};{textual content{organ}}/{textual content{Weight}};{textual content{of}};{textual content{mice}}$$

The colon, coronary heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney have been collected and stuck with 4% paraformaldehyde and stained with hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) for pathological evaluation. As well as, the colon tissue was subjected to Masson’s trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry assay.

In vivo evaluation of intestinal permeability

The FITC-dextran was used to measure epithelial permeability, as described beforehand [13]. Briefly, the mice have been starved in a single day earlier than the top of the experiment. The mice have been handled with FITC-dextran (220 mg/kg) orally. After 4 h, the blood samples have been collected. The fluorescence depth within the serum was measured in a microplate reader at an excitation wavelength of 485 nm and an emission wavelength of 528 nm.

Movement cytometry evaluation

The colon tissues have been harvested for stream cytometry evaluation in response to a beforehand used technique [24]. The colon tissues have been incubated with a digestive resolution of intestinal epithelial cells (HBSS, 1 mM EDTA, and 1 mM DTT) to take away intestinal epithelial cells, after which enzymatically digested in RPMI 1640 media containing collagenase IV (1 mg/mL), DNase I (0.3 mg/mL), and 5% FBS at 37 °C. The colonic lamina propria cells have been harvested by centrifugation and blocked with PBS containing 2% BSA. M2Φ and DCs have been labeled with CD45-APC-Cy7, CD11b-FITC, CD11c-PE-Cy7, MHCII-PE, F4/80-BV510, and CD206-APC antibodies. The professional-inflammatory monocytes, neutrophils, and G-MDSCs have been labeled with CD45-FITC, CD11b-BB700, Ly6C-AF700, and Ly6G-BV605 antibodies. Tregs have been labeled with CD45-APC-Cy7, CD3-Percp-cy5.5, CD4-FITC, and CD25-BV421. Intracellular FoxP3-PE was stained utilizing an intracellular staining package (BD Biosciences, USA). The cells have been measured with a stream cytometer (ACEA NovoCyte 3000, Agilent, USA).

Statistical strategies

All information have been expressed as imply ± SD (n ≥ 3). Statistical evaluation was carried out by Pupil’s t-test or one-way ANOVA. Statistical significance was indicated as *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001.

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